Key Ideas and Concepts

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Key Ideas and Concepts

Key Ideas and Concepts

Below are some key ideas and concepts that are critical to the understanding of standards based assessment. Click on each idea/concept to find out more.


Ohio learning standards are established by the Ohio Department of Education to clearly define grade appropriate knowledge/skills. Standards are used to guide teacher instruction to lead all students toward mastery of a common set of learning expectations.
Learn more about Ohio's learning standards here

Formative Assessment (Practice)

When teachers conduct assessment, they are evaluating what a student has learned. Formative assessment are items such as homework, rehearsal, discussion questions, and other activities that are complete while learning is happening. Formative assessment provides valuable information to teachers so they may adjust instruction to better meet the needs of the student. Formative assessment is considered practice. Rather than recieving a "grade", a student receives descriptive feedback on formative assessment items so that they may better understand their strengths and weaknesses. Formative assessment is not a factor in a student’s academic report card but it is crucial to the learning process. 

Summative Assessment

This is assessment of learning after instruction and formative assessment is complete and is designed to allow a student to demonstrate what they know. In other words, this is what happens after learning takes place. Students are asked to perform a task to show what they have learned. This could be a test, quiz, project, presentation, or any other similar task. Summative assessment will be recorded in ProgressBook and shown on the academic report card using performance level descriptors to show a student’s level of mastery of a particular standard.

Performance Level

Level of mastery a student has achieved for a particular standard. Students receive a performance level descriptor on all summative assessments as scored against a rubric for that standard. Mapleton Middle School uses three levels of performance descriptors.
Met the Standard
Highest level of achievement a student can receive. Signifies that the student has a complete understanding of the standard and can successfully and consistently demonstrate that understanding.
Approaching the Standard
Indicates a student is progressing in his/her knowledge of the standard but may not be successfully and consistently demonstrating that knowledge.
Developing Knowledge of the Standard
Indicates a student has a basic understanding of the knowledge and skills related to a particular standard. At this level, a student is building the foundation of knowledge needed that will eventually lead the student to higher levels of achievement.


Provides clear, descriptive communication to a student about areas of strength and areas where improvement is needed to help the student progress through the performance levels. Feedback is used to assess student learning for all formative assessments and can take the form of written or verbal feedback.


The ability of a student to redo or retake any summative assessment until reaching the highest performance level for a standard.
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